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              《新時代的中非合作》白皮書(4)(中英對照)

              來源:可可英語 編輯:Villa ?  可可英語APP下載 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet

              2. Rapidly Expanding Economic Cooperation

              (二)經濟合作迅速發展

              China and Africa have seen economic and trade cooperation expanding rapidly in scale and extent. The 10 major cooperation plans and the eight major initiatives adopted at the 2015 FOCAC Johannesburg Summit and the 2018 FOCAC Beijing Summit raised China-Africa economic and trade cooperation to a new level.

              中非經貿合作加速發展,深度廣度不斷拓展。中非合作論壇約翰內斯堡峰會和北京峰會分別宣布實施“十大合作計劃”和“八大行動”,將中非經貿合作水平推向歷史新高。

              – Increasing development assistance. While pursuing its own growth, China supports African countries in seeking development and improving their people's lives. In the new era, China has scaled up assistance to Africa. Foreign aid from 2013 to 2018 totaled RMB270 billion. Of this sum, 45 percent went to African countries in the form of grants, interest-free loans and concessional loans. From 2000 to 2020, China helped African countries build more than 13,000 km of roads and railway and more than 80 large-scale power facilities, and funded over 130 medical facilities, 45 sports venues and over 170 schools. It also trained more than 160,000 personnel for Africa, and built a series of flagship projects including the AU Conference Center. China's assistance extended to various aspects of the economy, society and people's lives, and was widely welcomed and supported by governments in Africa and the people. China has announced an exemption from debt incurred in the form of interest-free Chinese government loans due to mature by the end of 2018. It will apply to Africa's least developed countries, heavily indebted and poor countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing countries that have diplomatic relations with China. During the Covid-19 pandemic, China cancelled the outstanding debts of 15 African countries in the form of interest-free loans that matured at the end of 2020.

              ——加大發展援助。中國在實現自身發展的進程中,始終關注和支持非洲國家改善民生、謀求發展的事業。進入新時代,中國在力所能及的基礎上不斷加大對非援助。2013年至2018年中國對外援助金額為2702億元人民幣,其中對非洲國家的援助占比44.65%,包括無償援助、無息貸款和優惠貸款。2000年至2020年,建成的公路鐵路超過13000公里,建設了80多個大型電力設施,援建了130多個醫療設施、45個體育館、170多所學校,為非洲培訓各領域人才共計16萬余名,打造了非盟會議中心等一系列中非合作“金字招牌”,涉及經濟社會生活的方方面面,受到非洲國家政府和人民的廣泛歡迎和支持。中國已宣布免除與中國有外交關系的非洲最不發達國家、重債窮國、內陸發展中國家、小島嶼發展中國家截至2018年底到期未償還政府間無息貸款。新冠肺炎疫情發生后,中國宣布免除15個非洲國家2020年底到期的無息貸款債務。

              – Booming trade relations. China has been Africa's largest trading partner for the 12 years since 2009. The proportion of Africa's trade with China in the continent's total external trade has continued to rise. In 2020, the figure exceeded 21 percent. The structure of China-Africa trade is improving. There has been a marked increase in technology in China's exports to Africa, with the export of mechanical and electrical products and high-tech products now accounting for more than 50 percent of the total. China has increased its imports of non-resource products from Africa, and offered zero-tariff treatment to 97 percent of taxable items exported to China by the 33 least-developed countries in Africa, with the goal of helping more African agricultural and manufactured goods gain access to the Chinese market. China's imports in services from Africa have been growing at an average annual rate of 20 percent since 2017, creating close to 400,000 jobs for the continent every year. In recent years, China's imports of agricultural products from Africa have also risen, and China has emerged as the second largest destination for Africa's agricultural exports. China and Africa have seen booming trade in new business models including cross-border e-commerce. Cooperation under the Silk Road E-commerce initiative has advanced. China has built a mechanism for e-commerce cooperation with Rwanda, and Chinese businesses have been active in investing in overseas order fulfillment centers. High-quality and special products from Africa are now directly available to the Chinese market via e-commerce platforms. The China-Mauritius free trade agreement (FTA), which became effective on January 1 2021, was the first FTA between China and an African country. It has injected new vitality into China-Africa economic and trade cooperation.

              ——加速貿易發展。中國自2009年起連續12年穩居非洲第一大貿易伙伴國地位,中非貿易額占非洲整體外貿總額比重連年上升,2020年超過21%。中非貿易結構持續優化,中國對非出口技術含量顯著提高,機電產品、高新技術產品對非出口額占比超過50%。中國主動擴大自非洲非資源類產品進口,對非洲33個最不發達國家97%稅目輸華產品提供零關稅待遇,幫助更多非洲農業、制造業產品進入中國市場。據統計,2017年以來中國從非洲服務進口年均增長20%,每年為非洲創造近40萬個就業崗位。近年來,中國自非農產品進口持續增長,已成為非洲第二大農產品出口目的國。中非電子商務等貿易新業態蓬勃發展,“絲路電商”合作不斷推進,中國已與盧旺達建立電子商務合作機制,中國企業積極投資海外倉建設,非洲優質特色產品通過電子商務直接對接中國市場。中國-毛里求斯自貿協定于2021年1月1日正式生效,成為中非間首個自貿協定,為中非經貿合作注入新動力。

              – Promoting cooperation in investment and financing. Cooperation in investment and financing has been one of the success stories of China-Africa cooperation in recent years, bringing new vitality into Africa's economic and social development. Combining Africa's needs and China's strengths, China encourages its companies to increase and optimize investment in Africa, providing support in financing and export credit insurance for eligible projects. Thanks to the combined efforts of the Chinese government, financial institutions, and enterprises, China's investment in Africa has built up sound momentum. It covers a wide range of fields including mining, processing and smelting of ores, equipment manufacturing, agriculture, home appliance production, aviation services, medicine and health, and the digital economy. With this help, African countries have been able to upgrade their industrialization, improve their industries, and increase their capacity to earn foreign exchange through exports.

              ——促進投融資合作。投融資合作是近年來中非合作最大亮點之一,為非洲經濟社會發展注入“血液”。結合非洲需要和中國優勢,中國鼓勵和支持中國企業擴大和優化對非投資,為符合條件的項目提供融資及出口信用保險支持。在中國政府、金融機構和各類企業合力推動下,中國對非投資呈現良好發展態勢,廣泛涉及礦業開采、加工冶煉、裝備制造、農業開發、家電生產、航空服務、醫藥衛生、數字經濟等產業,幫助非方提升了有關產業工業化水平、產業配套和出口創匯能力。

              By the end of 2020, direct investment of Chinese companies in Africa had surpassed $43 billion. China has established over 3,500 companies of various types across the continent. Private companies have gradually become the main investment force in Africa; more than 80 percent of their employees are locals, and they have directly and indirectly created millions of jobs.

              截至2020年底,中國企業累計對非直接投資超過430億美元。中國在非洲設立各類企業超過3500家,民營企業逐漸成為對非投資的主力,聘用非洲本地員工比例超80%,直接和間接創造了數百萬個就業機會。

              – Facilitating agricultural development in Africa. China has always been willing to share agricultural development experience and technology with Africa, to support African countries in improving agricultural production and processing, and to help them in building their agricultural value chains and trade. Since 2012, 7,456 African trainees have received agricultural training in China. Through projects such as sending Chinese agricultural experts to Africa, more than 50,000 Africans have been trained and 23 agricultural demonstration centers have been built. To date, China has established agricultural cooperation mechanisms with 23 African countries and regional organizations, and signed 72 bilateral and multilateral agricultural cooperation agreements. Since 2012, China has signed 31 agricultural cooperation agreements with 20 African countries and regional organizations. In 2019, the First China-Africa Agriculture Cooperation Forum was held, which announced the establishment of the China-AU Agriculture Cooperation Commission and the formulation of a program of action to promote China-Africa cooperation in agricultural modernization. By the end of 2020, more than 200 Chinese companies had an investment stock of $1.11 billion in agricultural sector in 35 African countries. Their investments cover areas such as planting, breeding and processing. More than 350 types of African agricultural products can be traded with China. All this ensures steady growth in China-Africa agricultural trade.

              ——助力非洲農業發展。中國積極同非洲分享農業發展經驗技術,支持非洲國家提高農業生產和加工水平,推動農業產業鏈建設和貿易發展。2012年以來,在華培訓非洲農業學員7456人次;通過實施援非百名農業專家、援非農業專家組等項目,培訓非洲當地5萬余人次,建成23個農業示范中心。截至目前,中國與23個非洲國家及地區組織建立農業合作機制,簽署了雙多邊農業合作文件72項。2012年以來,中國與20個非洲國家及地區組織簽署農業合作文件31項。2019年中非舉辦首屆中非農業合作論壇,成立中國-非盟農業合作委員會,啟動中非農業現代化合作規劃和行動計劃編制工作。截至2020年底,中國在非農業投資企業超200家,涉及非洲國家共35個,投資存量11.1億美元,投資范圍涵蓋種植、養殖和農產品加工等各產業,超過350余種非洲農產品食品可開展對華貿易,中非農業貿易穩步增長。

              – Contributing to industrialization in Africa. Industrialization is a prerequisite for the continent to achieve inclusive and sustainable development, and is also the key to creating jobs, eradicating poverty, and improving living standards. China supports African countries in improving their "soft" and "hard" environment for investment in accordance with their national conditions and development needs. Taking industrial alignment and capacity cooperation as the engine, China helps advance the process of Africa's industrialization and economic diversification. To date, China has established industrial capacity cooperation mechanisms with 15 countries in Africa. China and African countries have worked together to build economic and trade cooperation zones, special economic zones, industrial parks and science parks, attracting enterprises from China and other countries to invest in Africa. They have built production and processing bases and localized their operations in Africa, contributing to an increase in local employment and tax revenues, and promoting industrial upgrading and technical cooperation. The China-Africa Fund for Production Capacity Cooperation has focused on the construction of highways, railways, and aviation networks, and industrialization in Africa. As of March 2021, investments had been made in 21 projects, covering energy, resources and manufacturing and boosting industrial development in recipient countries. Dozens of Chinese-funded enterprises have cooperated with African counterparts to build photovoltaic power stations, with a cumulative installed capacity exceeding 1.5 GW, which has helped create photovoltaic industry chains from scratch in Africa, while effectively alleviating power shortages and reducing carbon emissions.

              ——助力非洲工業化。工業化是非洲實現包容性和持續性發展的前提,是創造就業、消除貧困、提高生活水平的關鍵。中國支持非洲國家根據自身國情和發展需求,改善投資軟硬環境,以產業對接和產能合作為龍頭,助力非洲工業化和經濟多元化進程。截至目前,中國與15個非洲國家建立產能合作機制。中國與非洲國家合作建設經貿合作區、經濟特區、工業園區、科技園區,吸引中國等各國企業赴非投資,建立生產和加工基地并開展本土化經營,增加當地就業和稅收,促進產業升級和技術合作。中非產能合作基金圍繞非洲“三網一化”(高速鐵路網、高速公路網、區域航空網和工業化)建設戰略開發業務,截至2021年3月,累計投資21個項目,涉及能源、資源、制造業等多個領域,有力帶動非洲國家產業發展。數十家中資企業與非洲企業合作建設光伏電站,累計裝機容量超過1.5吉瓦(GW),填補非洲光伏產業鏈空白,有效緩解當地用電緊缺問題并促進低碳減排。

              – Expanding cooperation in infrastructure. China supports Africa in making infrastructure development a priority for economic revitalization. It encourages and supports Chinese enterprises to adopt various models to participate in the construction, investment, operation and management of infrastructure projects in Africa. From 2016 to 2020, total investment in infrastructure projects in Africa reached almost $200 billion. Projects implemented by Chinese companies accounted for 31.4 percent of all infrastructure projects on the African continent in 2020. Since the founding of FOCAC, Chinese companies have utilized various funds to help African countries build and upgrade more than 10,000 km of railways, nearly 100,000 km of highways, nearly 1,000 bridges and 100 ports, and 66,000 km of power transmission and distribution. They have also helped build an installed power-generating capacity of 120 million kW, a communications backbone network of 150,000 km and a network service covering nearly 700 million user terminals. Built and operated by Chinese companies, the Mombasa-Nairobi Railway was the first modern railway to be built in Kenya in 100 years. Applying Chinese standards, technologies and equipment, the project has won praise as a road of friendship and cooperation, and a path towards win-win development between China and Africa in the new era. The railway has carried 5.4 million passengers and 1.3 million standard containers. It has contributed 1.5 percent to Kenya's economic growth, and created 46,000 direct and indirect jobs. China has guided its enterprises to explore multiple forms of cooperation, such as BOT (build-operate-transfer), BOO (build-own-operate) and PPP (public-private partnership). Such efforts aim to transform China-Africa infrastructure cooperation to a wholly integrated model covering investment, construction and operation, and push forward the sustainable development of infrastructure projects.

              ——深化基礎設施合作。中國支持非洲將基礎設施建設作為經濟振興的優先發展方向,鼓勵和支持中國企業采取多種模式參與非洲基礎設施建設、投資、運營和管理。2016年至2020年,非洲開工建設的基礎設施項目總額近2000億美元,2020年中國企業實施的項目比已達31.4%。中非合作論壇成立以來,中國企業利用各類資金幫助非洲國家新增和升級鐵路超過1萬公里、公路近10萬公里、橋梁近千座、港口近百個、輸變電線路6.6萬公里、電力裝機容量1.2億千瓦、通訊骨干網15萬公里,網絡服務覆蓋近7億用戶終端。中國企業承建和運營的肯尼亞蒙內鐵路是該國百年來第一條現代化鐵路,全部采用中國標準、中國技術、中國裝備,被譽為新時期中非“友誼之路”“合作之路”“共贏之路”,累計運送旅客541.5萬人次、發送集裝箱130.8萬個標準箱,對肯經濟增長貢獻率達到1.5%,累計直接和間接創造就業4.6萬個。中國引導企業采用BOT(建設—經營—轉讓方式)、BOO(建設—擁有—經營方式)、PPP(政府與社會資本合作)等多種模式,推動中非基礎設施合作向投資建設運營一體化模式轉型,促進基礎設施項目可持續發展。

              – Strengthening financial cooperation. Financial institutions from both sides have been exploring each other's markets. Their central banks have expanded the scale of local currency settlement and currency swap, leading to a steady improvement in China-Africa financial facilitation. As of October 2021, the Cross-Border Interbank Payment System (CIPS) had 42 indirect participants in Africa, covering 19 African countries. The People's Bank of China (PBOC), China's central bank, has signed successive currency swap agreements with the central banks of South Africa, Morocco, Egypt and Nigeria, to a total amount of RMB73 billion. China has signed a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in financial supervision with seven African countries including Egypt, South Africa and Nigeria, laying a solid foundation for steady and long-term bilateral financial cooperation. China has joined the African Development Bank (AfDB), the Eastern and Southern African Trade and Development Bank, the West African Development Bank and other multilateral development financial institutions. It has pledged to contribute a total of $996 million to the African Development Fund under the AfDB.

              ——加強金融合作。中非金融機構積極開發對方市場,雙方央行積極擴大本幣結算和互換安排,推動中非金融便利化水平穩步提高。截至2021年10月,人民幣跨境支付系統(CIPS)有42家非洲地區間接參與者,覆蓋19個非洲國家。中國央行先后與南非、摩洛哥、埃及和尼日利亞央行簽署了本幣互換協議,金額總計730億元人民幣。中國已同埃及、南非、尼日利亞等7個非洲國家簽署了金融監管合作諒解備忘錄,為雙方金融合作行穩致遠打牢基礎。中國加入非洲開發銀行、東南非貿易與開發銀行和西非開發銀行等多邊開發金融機構。中國已累計向非洲開發銀行下的非洲開發基金承諾捐資9.96億美元。

              – Expanding cooperation in the digital economy. China is helping African countries to eliminate the digital divide. Rapid development and fruitful results have been achieved in this field – building digital infrastructure, transition towards a digital society, and the application of new technologies such as the Internet of Things and mobile finance. Chinese companies have participated in a number of submarine cable projects connecting Africa and Europe, Asia, and the Americas. They have cooperated with major African operators in achieving full basic coverage of telecommunications services in Africa. They have built more than half of the continent's wireless sites and high-speed mobile broadband networks. In total, more than 200,000 km of optical fiber has been laid, giving broadband Internet access to 6 million households, and serving more than 900 million local people. To date, more than 1,500 companies in 17 cities in 15 African countries have selected Chinese corporate partners on their digital transformation path. Twenty-nine countries have selected smart government service solutions provided by Chinese companies. China and Africa have jointly established a public cloud service in South Africa that covers the entire African region. The two sides also released the first 5G independent networking commercial network in the region. The level and content of China-Africa e-commerce cooperation continue to grow. The Silk Road E-Commerce Capacity Building Cloud Lectures have effectively improved the digital literacy of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in partner countries. Promotion activities have been held to help high-quality products from Africa to access the Chinese market. Such activities include a government-initiated shopping festival that began in 2019, featuring Silk Road e-commerce, as well as the FOCAC African Products Online Promoting Season. Chinese companies actively participate in building platforms of public services in Africa such as electronic payment and smart logistics. All these efforts are designed to achieve win-win cooperation through promoting connectivity. At the China-Africa Internet Development and Cooperation Forum in August 2021, China announced its intention to formulate and implement a joint China-Africa Partnership Plan on Digital Innovation in Africa.

              ——拓展數字經濟合作。中國積極幫助非洲國家消除“數字鴻溝”,中非“數字經濟”合作發展迅速,從數字基礎設施建設到社會數字化轉型,物聯網、移動金融等新技術應用,全領域合作成果豐碩。中國企業參與了多條連接非洲和歐、亞、美洲大陸海纜工程;與非洲主流運營商合作基本實現非洲電信服務全覆蓋;建設了非洲一半以上無線站點及高速移動寬帶網絡,累計鋪設超過20萬公里光纖,幫助600萬家庭實現寬帶上網,服務超過9億非洲人民。截至目前,超過15個非洲國家的17個城市、1500多家企業選擇中國企業作為數字化轉型伙伴,29個國家選擇中國企業提供的智慧政務服務方案;中非共同在南非建立了服務整個非洲區域的公有“云”,以及非洲首個5G獨立組網商用網絡。中非電子商務合作層次和內涵不斷豐富,“絲路電商”云上大講堂有效提升伙伴國中小微企業數字素養,“雙品網購節”絲路電商專場、“非洲產品電商推廣季”等活動助力非洲優質產品進入中國市場,中國企業積極參與非洲電子支付、智慧物流等公共服務平臺建設,在互聯互通中實現合作共贏。2021年8月,中非互聯網發展與合作論壇成功舉辦,中國宣布愿同非洲共同制定和實施“中非數字創新伙伴計劃”。

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              innovation [.inəu'veiʃən]

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              n. 創新,革新

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              n. 工具,器具; 當工具的物品
              vt. 實施

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              industrialization [in.dʌstriəlai'zeiʃən]

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